Forensic Engineering Analysis of a Wheel Spindle Failure Due to Pre-Load and Fatigue

Authors

  • David Danaher, PE, DFE Kineticorp

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.51501/jotnafe.v37i1.96

Keywords:

Denver, tapered, bearing, fatigue, loading, wheel, spindle, pre-load, torque, axle, forensic engineering

Abstract

Typically, most vehicles equipped with non-powered wheels use a spindle that not only supports the weight of the vehicle but also allows the rotation of the tire. The rotation of the hub and wheel on the spindle is accomplished with the use of either a tapered or double row ball bearing. Bearings are mounted between the spindle and hub/wheel assembly, then secured with a castle nut set to a specified torque. Tapered bearings are chosen for this application because they are designed for applications where forces are generated radially (vertically) and axially (laterally) during use. Although tapered bearings are ideally suited for use in wheel and spindle assemblies, they must be installed properly to perform as designed. As part of that installation, the spindle nut must be properly torqued in order to apply a sufficient pre-load to the tapered bearings. Without the proper pre-load, the bearings can either generate too much friction or ride improperly on the spindle, generating forces that are not properly distributed. This paper will discuss the failure of a spindle and wheel assembly that experienced fatigue due to improper pre-load of the spindle nut.

References

N. Carter, Evaluation of the Accuracy of Image Based Scanning as a Basis for Photogrammetric Reconstruction of Physical Evidence, 2016-01-1467, Warrendale: Society of Automotive Engineers, 2016.

R. M. Brach, Vehicle Accident Analysis and Reconstruction Methods, Warrendale: Society of Automotive Engineers, 2005.

C. Chou, Image Analysis of Rollover Crash Tests Using Photogrammetry, 2006-01-0723, Warrendale: Society of Automotive Engineers, 2006.

Steve Fenton, Accident Scene Diagramming Using New Photogrammetric Technique, 970944, Warrendale: Society of Automotive Engineers, 1997.

Steve Fenton, Using Digital Photogrammetry to Determine Vehicle Crush and Equivalent Barrier Speed (EBS), 1999-01-0439, Warrendale: Society of Automotive Engineer, 1999.

James Funk, Occupant Ejection Trajectories in Rollover Crashes: Full-Scale Testing and Real World Cases, 2008-01-0166, Warrendale: Society of Automotive Engineers, 2008.

William Neal, Photogrammetric Measurement Error Associated with Lens Distortion, 2011-01-0286, Warrendale: Society of Automotive Engineers, 2011.

Nathan Rose, A Method to Quantify Vehicle Dynamics and Deformation for Vehicle Rollover Tests Using Camera-Matching Video Analysis, 2008-01-0350, Warrendale: Society of Automotive Engineers, 2008.

K. Baker, Traffic Collision Investigation, Evanston: Northwestern University Center for Public Safety, 2001.

G. Beauchamp, Determining Vehicle Steering and Braking from Yaw Mark Striations, 2009-01-0092, Warrendale: Society of Automotive Engineers, 2009.

R. Brach, Vehicle Accident Analysis and Reconstruction Methods, Warrendale: Society of Automotive Engineers, 2005.

J. Daily, Fundamentals of Traffic Crash Reconstruction, Jacksonville: Police Technology and Management, University of North Florida, 2006.

N. Rose, Factors Influencing Roof-to-Ground Impact Severity: Video Analysis and Analytical Modeling, 2007-01-0726, Warrendale: Society of Automotive Engineers, 2007.

N. Rose, Development of a Vehicle Deceleration Rate Approach to Rollover Crash Reconstruction, 2009-01-0093, Warrendale: Society of Automotive Engineers, 2009.

L. Fricke, Traffic Accident Reconstruction, Warendale: Society of Automotive Engineers, 2010.

SKF, "Principles of Rolling Bearing Selection," SKF, 2018. [Online]. Available: 16.

https://www.skf.com/group/products/bearings-units-housings/principles/bearing-selection-process/bearing-type-arrangement/arrangements-and-their-bearing-types/index.html. [Accessed 2018].

Timken, "Timken Bearing Damage Analysis with Lubrication Reference Guide," Timken, North Canton, 2015.

E. Avallone, "Mark's Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers 10th Edition," McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Morton & Control, "NSK Rolling Bearings Preload," NSK, Japan, 2018.

R. Norton, Machine Design an Integrated Approach, Prentice-Hall, 1996.

N. Dowling, Mechanical Behavior of Materials, 4th Edition, Pearson Education, 2013.

ASM, ASM Handbook Committee, Fractography, Vol 12, Visual Examination and Light Microscopy, pg. 118, ASM International, 1987.

M. Lindeburg, Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual for the PE Exam, Eleventh Edition, Belmont: Professional Publications, 2001.

Downloads

Published

2021-01-08

How to Cite

Danaher, D. (2021). Forensic Engineering Analysis of a Wheel Spindle Failure Due to Pre-Load and Fatigue. Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers, 37(1). https://doi.org/10.51501/jotnafe.v37i1.96

Issue

Section

Articles